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06.08.2018

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Parasites reduce host fitness by general or specialised pathology, from parasitic castration to modification of host behaviour. People have known about parasites such as roundworms and tapeworms since ancient Egypt, Greece, and Rome. Parasitism is a kind of symbiosis, a close and persistent long-term biological interaction between the parasite and its host. Unlike commensalism and mutualism, the parasitic relationship harms the host, either feeding on it or, as in the case of intestinal parasites, consuming some of its food. Within that scope are many possible ways of life.

Parasites are classified in a variety of different but overlapping schemes, based on their interactions with their hosts and on their life cycles, which are sometimes very complex. Much of the thinking on types of parasitism has focussed on terrestrial animal parasites of animals, such as helminths. Those in other environments and with other hosts often have analogous strategies. For example, the snubnosed eel is probably a facultative endoparasite that opportunistically burrows into and eats sick and dying fish. Parasitic castrators partly or completely destroy their host’s ability to reproduce, diverting the energy that would have gone into reproduction into host and parasite growth, sometimes causing gigantism in the host. The host’s other systems are left intact, allowing it to survive and sustain the parasite. Human head lice are directly-transmitted obligate ectoparasites.

Clonorchis sinensis, the Chinese liver fluke, is trophically transmitted. Trophically transmitted parasites are transmitted by being eaten by a host. Vector-transmitted parasites rely on a third party, an intermediate host, where the parasite does not reproduce sexually to carry them from one definitive host to another. Parasitoids are insects which sooner or later kill their hosts, placing their relationship close to predation.